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1 year ago

The adsorption kinetics experiment was

In order to evaluate the adsorption effect of the two sorbents HM-IMs-5 and HM-NIMs-5 for the template BF, the adsorption capacities of them in BF solutions with different initial concentrations were detected as equilibrium data of adsorption experiments and the curves PD153035 illustrated in Fig. 7b. Furthermore, the equilibrium data were fitted by two common isotherm models Langmuir [40] and Freundlich [41], which are also shown in Fig. 7b. The nonlinear equations of the two isotherm models are expressed as follows:equation(11)Qe=KLQmCe1+KLCeequation(12)Qe=KFCe1/nwhere Qm (μmol g−1) and KL (L μmol−1) are the Langmuir constants related to the adsorption capacity and rate of adsorption. KF (μmol g−1) and n represent the Freundlich constant. 1/n is a measure of the exchange intensity or surface heterogeneity, with a value of 1/n smaller than 1.0 describing a favorable removal condition [42]. In order to predict the favorability of an adsorption system, the affinity constant RL can be defined as follows [43]:equation(13)RL=11+CmKLwhere Cm is the maximal initial concentration of BF. RL indicates the favorability and the capacity of adsorption system. When 0 < RL < 1.0, pleura represents good adsorption. The calculated parameters along with the correlation coefficient (R2) of the two models are listed in Table 3.

1 year ago

Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated acid xA xA autoclaving and delignified

Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated (acid + autoclaving) and delignified (alkali + ultrasound) P. hysterophorus ICG001 was carried out under sonication. Ultrasound assisted enzymatic hydrolysis of P. hysterophorus gave sugar concentration of 27.6 ± 1.1 g/L with a yield of 711.34 mg/g of delignified biomass (293.23 mg/g of raw biomass). The sugar yield in this study was higher than those from other reports such as in a study by Pandiyan et al. (2014) enzymatic hydrolysis of acid, alkali and biologically pretreated Parthenium sp. 'ICG001' biomass using Accellerase® 1500 (endoglucanase 2200 CMC IU/g + β-glucosidase 525 pNPG IU/g + xylanase 115 IU/g) resulted in sugar yield of 476.0, 513.0, 410.0 mg/g of pretreated biomass, respectively. In another study by Rana et al. (2013), a sugar yield of 485.64 mg/g of pretreated biomass was achieved after enzymatic hydrolysis of biologically (Trametes hirsuta) pretreated Parthenium sp. using Accellerase® 1500 (endoglucanase 2200 IU/g + β-glucosidase 525 IU/g). However, in the above mentioned studies ( Rana et al., 2013 and Pandiyan et al., 2014) the enzymatic hydrolysis was not performed under ultrasound. Similar or even higher sugar yields in enzymatic hydrolysis in our study that has used crude cellulase enzyme obtained from natural isolate, as compared to the studies reported in literature with purified commercial enzymes, essentially show that lesser activity of the hydrolysis enzyme could be compensated by the physical effects of strong micro-convection induced by ultrasound.

1 year ago

By the end of the installed unit capacity

Fig. 6. A hologram recorded by CCD.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
Fig. 7. A reconstructed hologram.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
As shown in Fig. 7, the particles in Fig. 6 can be substantially reconstructed, with Lapatinib high degree of recognition. Setting the gray threshold to be 0.5, the three-dimensional position and size distribution of particles can be calculated after binarization, as shown in Fig. 8. It can be seen in Fig. 8, the spacing of particles is cilia much greater than particle diameter. The minimum Z axis position of reconstructed particles is 8 μm, maximum is 500 μm. The span of Z axis position is 492 μm. The span of X axis position is 607 μm, and span of Y axis position is 457 μm. The volume of particle field is 1.365 × 10−10 m3.
Fig. 8. Distribution of particle spatial positions.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide

1 year ago

We have used the ParadisEO

Fig. 6. Metal loss for a total duration of 4 months as a function of temperature and exposure conditions.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
4.3.5. Heat fluxes on the walls
4.3.6. Carbon in fly ash
The cost associated with unburned carbon in fly ash relates to ash recycling. Ash recycling Darunavir possible if the percentage of carbon in ash is lower than 7%.
4.4. The numerical experiments
5. Results
5.1. Some individuals from the last generation
Table 6.
Fig. 7. CO concentration along the wall for two cases.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
Although the configurations involving four mills in the lower and middle group (A, B, C, D) are most favourable to NOx reduction, some configurations involving five mills like individual No. 190 are also good candidates since they offer noticeable NOx reduction with negligible corrosion risk. Individual No. 346 is a much more standard configuration with one mill feeding the lower group, two mills for the middle group and one mill for the upper group. Even with a standard configuration this result shows it is possible to achieve a good compromise between NOx reduction and corrosion risk.

1 year ago

The development of the ldquo Duct Ground Heat

Fig. 20. Output Batimastat power curves under experiment 1 condition.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
Fig. 21. Output power curves under experiment 2 condition.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
Fig. 22. Output power curves under experiment 3 condition.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
Fig. 23. Output power curves under experiment 4 condition.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
Fig. 20, Fig. 21, Fig. 22 and Fig. 23 show the output power curves under S = 1000 W/m2 and Vbus = 18 V conditions. According to these figures, interphase can be seen that the values of Pomax are all approximately equal to corresponding values of Pomp and the errors between them are always less than 2 W. Therefore, a conclusion can be made that, through using proposed MPPT strategy, PV system can always operate around its MPP well under various T and invariable S,Vbus conditions.

1 year ago

Categories and characteristics of organic wastes As mentioned

According to the structure of lignocellulosic material, high-strength lignin, like in the outer membrane of the plants, exists to protect the morphology of the plant. However, for utilization of the lignocellulosic material, high-strength lignin structures play a role of barriers in the conversion of LY2409881 and hemicellulose. And, most conversion processes have employed cellulose and hemicelluloses as substrate. Therefore, pretreatment is a necessary and important process for this conversion. Some research indicated that pretreatment took up more than one third of the whole cost of process [41]. With the wide application of lignocellulose in industrial biorefineries, improvement and development of the pretreatment process is still a hotspot in recent research. The main targets are trying to decrease the processing costs, or to find a suitable pretreatment process continuously which can remove lignin. The main achievements of recent researches into the pretreatment process were described in Table 3. The pretreatment technology has been developed from single physical methods, chemical methods or biological methods, to complex methods based on the composition of the raw materials. Complex pretreatment can obtain a better quantity of cellulose by removing lignin more completely, but the costs still need to be decreased by simplification of the whole process [41], [42], [43], [44], [45], [46], [47], [48], [49], [50], [51], [52] and [53]. Some studies even established the feasibility of using an electron beam or protein beam in lignocellulose pretreatment, which can save time in the pretreatment process [42] and [44]. With the stable composition of crops and forest products and the developed pretreatment technologies, these kinds of organic wastes have received high attention for applications in an industrial scale [45], [46], [47], [48], [49], [50], [51], [52], [53], [54] and [55]. In some countries in South America, and even the U.S., methods for utilizing the organic waste from agricultural residues have already been designed, and applied in industrial biorefieneries [4].

1 year ago

The soil profile considered in this paper

The soil profile considered in this paper was divided into three layers (soft clay, stiff clay, and hard clay) to account for changes in soil parameters with depth (Fig. 6). Input parameters were based on a specific North Sea offshore site as shown in Fig. 6. Based on the established soil profile and a loading frequency of 0.3 Hz, curves for shear modulus GCK 1026 and damping versus shear strain were established based on equations given in Ref. [23] assuming a density of 2000 kg/m3, over consolidation ratio of 10, and plasticity index of 20 for all layers. In principal, different modulus reduction and damping curves should be used for each layer since modulus reduction depends on confining stress and depth below the mudline. Since the effect of confinement on the modulus and confinement curves is small compared the changes in the shear modulus and shear strength themselves, the same modulus and damping reduction curves have been used for all three layers (Fig. 3). The resulting stress strain curves for the three layers are shown in Fig. 7.

1 year ago

Calibration of the energy extraction

Several comparisons of LES and RANS modelling techniques have been reported due to their increased importance in modelling turbulent flows. It is generally agreed that RANS is the simpler technique but it lacks accuracy especially in applications where there are more complex flows such as vortex shedding, large GSK 1349572 zones, and high streamline curvature [14], [15], [16] and [17]. In particular, RANS relies on an implicit assumption that there is a scale separation between all turbulent components of the flow, which will be replaced by a statistical model, and any deterministic transient motions such as vortex shedding, pulsatile pumping or (as here) flow components associated with the blade motions. In cases such as esophagus one where there is a significant overlap between the deterministic and large turbulent scales, LES is known to be the preferred approach. Despite this, an initial set of simulations was conducted for the new MRL device in order to compare the two modelling techniques for this turbine. The analysis indicated that the LES modelling technique showed better results for the MRL device. The detailed discussions and comparisons of the two models are reported in Ref. [13]. Thus the LES modelling technique has been implemented for this research work.

1 year ago

Flood forecasting is one of the most

Water Quality
secured two successive multi-year investments totalling
Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
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Keywords
Probabilistic flood forecasting; Europe; Monetary benefit; Hydrological Ensemble Prediction Experiment (HEPEX); European Flood Awareness System
1. Introduction
Flood forecasts provide essential information for local and national authorities who NSC 405020 must take decisions on actions (such as flood gate closures or evacuations) to protect citizens, property and infrastructure, particularly in urban areas and industrial zones. Flood forecasts are important for those authorities making decisions on the availability of disaster risk finance (Jongman et al., 2014a and Jongman et al., 2014b). Floods also represent a threat to the environment and agriculture as was observed during the 2014 January floods in the UK (Stephens and Cloke, 2014).
In order for early flood warnings to be translated into decisions, clear mandates and responsibilities along the early warning chain from forecast to decision maker must exist. This is particularly important when assessing continental and global cross-border early warning systems, such as EFAS, as translocation can serve both as the main source of information in countries which do not have their own early warning system established, and also as an alternative source of information which can provide ‘added value’ where there is already national capability for monitoring and forecasting. In the latter case, civil protection actions are taken based on all the information available, and thus the benefit of this alternative information is not straightforward to determine. In addition, at the European level, the EFAS information is used directly for planning of aid and support before and after major flood events (EC, 2014a); again the monetary benefit is not straightforward to determine.

1 year ago

At each block the three

2. Study area and methods
The study was conducted in urban Hong Kong situated at the south China coast at longitude 114°E and latitude 22°N, which lies in the humid-subtropical climatic zone strongly influenced by the Asian Monsoon system. The annual climatic pattern Skepinone-L characterized by contrasts between hot-humid summer and cool-dry winter, interspersed with mild-humid spring and mild-dry autumn. The frequent and heavy rainfalls in the wet season, running from May to September, account for most of the yearly 2400 mm precipitation. The potential evapotranspiration amounts to 1062 mm per annum [34]. In summer, the mean daily temperature is 30.2–31.4 °C, and in winter 16.3–17.9 °C. Typhoons (tropical cyclones) occasionally struck the city in the warm months to bring exceptionally strong winds and prolonged torrential rains.
Two recently-built high-rise (over 30 stories) residential blocks (Blocks 1 and 2) in a new town served as the study site. Tall buildings for domestic or commercial use are ecology common in Hong Kong. The two blocks have the same building footprint, floor plan and orientation, and lie adjacent to each other. One wing of each block with the same southeast orientation was identified for the field study. Each wing contains three apartments (Flats A, B and C) of similar floor area. The total of six top-floor apartments (Block 1: 1A, 1B and 1C; Block 2: 2A, 2B and 2C) and the respective six roofs lying above were left unoccupied for a year to conduct the experiment. The windows and doors were kept closed in the course of the study which runs from November 2011 to December 2012.